Local anesthesia refers to the use of local anesthetics in the body part of the patient’s conscious state so that the sensory nerve conduction function of a certain part of the body is temporarily blocked, and the motor nerve conduction remains intact or has a degree of retardation. This blockage should be completely reversible and does not cause any tissue damage. The advantages of local anesthesia are that it is simple, safe, patient awake, has fewer complications, and has little effect on the patient’s physiological function.
Local anesthesia has unique advantages in some respects compared to general anesthesia. First, local anesthesia has no effect on consciousness; secondly, local anesthesia can also play a certain degree of postoperative analgesia; in addition, local anesthesia has simple operation, safety, fewer complications, and has little effect on the physiological function of patients, which can hinder Disrupt all kinds of adverse nerve reactions, reduce the stress response caused by surgical trauma and quick recovery.
However, local anesthesia and general anesthesia often complement each other clinically. The two anesthesia methods cannot be completely isolated but should be considered as part of a personalized anesthesia program for specific patients. For patients with pediatric, mental illness or unconsciousness, it is not advisable to use local anesthesia alone to complete the operation. Basic anesthesia or general anesthesia must be supplemented. Local anesthesia can also be used as an auxiliary means of general anesthesia to enhance the anesthetic effect and reduce the amount of general anesthesia.
Local anesthetics are drugs that can temporarily, completely, reversibly block nerve conduction within a limited range of the human body, that is, to lose a sense of a certain part of the human body in the condition that the consciousness has not disappeared, so as to facilitate the surgical operation. The fundamental difference between a local anesthetic and a general anesthetic is that the local anesthetic binds to certain specific sites on the sodium channel on the nerve membrane, and the sodium ion through the sodium channel decreases, thereby changing the neuron membrane potential, leading to the conduction of nerve impulses. Blocked, eventually achieving anesthesia; while general anesthetics exert anesthesia by affecting the physical properties of the nerve membrane, such as the fluid properties and permeability of the membrane.