During breathing, air is drawn into the tiny alveolar sacs of the lungs through the mouth and/or nose, pharynx, larynx, trachea, and bronchial tree, and the air is mixed with carbon dioxide-rich gas from the blood. Then exhale air.
This cycle is usually repeated at the frequency or frequency of breathing, for adults with approximately 12 breaths per minute. Babies and children breathe faster.
The gas exchange in the lungs provides oxygen to the blood and removes carbon dioxide that is collected from the cells.
Ventilation is the amount of “tidal” gas that enters or leaves the lungs at a given time and determines whether the gas exchange is sufficient.
For the mechanical ventilator to work, it must produce the correct tidal volume and breathing rate for the body.
Traditional ventilators produce normal breathing patterns for children and adults, approximately 12-25 breaths per minute.
During the breathing process, two forces swell the lungs and chest wall: the contraction of the muscles (including the diaphragm) and the contrasting pressure of the airway openings (mouth and nose) and the external surface of the chest wall.
In general, the respiratory muscles expand the chest wall. This reduces the pressure outside the lungs so they expand. This enlarges the airspace in the lungs and sucks air into the lungs.
When the respiratory muscle cannot do breathing work, one or both of these two forces can be manipulated with a mechanical ventilator.
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